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nea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway. It is characterized by repetitive episodes of shallow or paused breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. These episodes of decreased breathing, called
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway. It is characterized by repetitive episodes of shallow or paused breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. These episodes of decreased breathing, called "apneas" (literally, "without breath"), typically last 20 to 40 seconds.Individuals with OSA are rarely aware of difficulty breathing, even upon awakening. It is often recognized as a problem by others who observe the individual during episodes or is suspected because of its effects on the body. OSA is commonly accompanied with snoring. Some use the term obstructive sleep apnea syndrome to refer to OSA which is associated with symptoms during the daytime. Symptoms may be present for years or even decades without identification, during which time the individual may become conditioned to the daytime sleepiness and fatigue associated with significant levels of sleep disturbance. Individuals who generally sleep alone are often unaware of the condition, without a regular bed-partner to notice and make them aware of their symptoms.As the muscle tone of the body ordinarily relaxes during sleep, and the airway at the throat is composed of walls of soft tissue, which can collapse, it is not surprising that breathing can be obstructed during sleep. Although a very minor degree of OSA is considered to be within the bounds of normal sleep, and many individuals experience episodes of OSA at some point in life, a small percentage of people have chronic, severe OSA.Many people experience episodes of OSA for only a short period. This can be the result of an upper respiratory infection that causes nasal congestion, along with swelling of the throat, or tonsillitis that temporarily produces very enlarged tonsils. The Epstein-Barr virus, for example, is known to be able to dramatically increase the size of lymphoid tissue during acute infection, and OSA is fairly common in acute cases of severe infectious mononucleosis. Temporary spells of OSA syndrome may also occur in individuals who are under the influence of a drug (such as alcohol) that may relax their body tone excessively and interfere with normal arousal from sleep mechanisms.
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bhishek Katakwar published in Deccan Chronicle (Date 21 january 2018)Our complete gastrointestinal tract is lined with microbes collectively called the microbiome, which includes bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Though it sounds weird and even unhealthy, gut bacteria perform many important functions in the body, including aiding the immune system, producing the feel-good brain chemical serotonin, making energy available to the body from the food we eat, and disposing of foreign substances and toxins, though we always have a mixture of good and bad bacteria, sometimes the bad guys get the upper hand, causing an imbalance in gut bacteria, and can cause severe health problems than just stomach pain, gas, bloating, or diarrhea. Because 60-80% of our immune system is located in our gut, gut imbalances have been linked to obesity, hormonal imbalances, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, anxiety, depression, eczema, and other chronic health problems.You will be surprised to know that human gastrointestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem of approximately 300 to 500 bacterial species, comprising nearly 2 million genes (the microbiome). Indeed, the number of bacteria within the gut is approximately 10 times that of all of the cells in the human body. At birth, the entire intestinal tract is sterile; the infant’s gut is first colonized by maternal and environmental bacteria during birth and continues to be populated through feeding and other contacts. Factors known to influence colonization include gestational age, mode of delivery (vaginal birth vs assisted delivery), diet (breast milk vs formula), level of sanitation, and exposure to antibiotics. by the age of 2.5 years, themicrobiota fully resembles the microbiota of an adult in terms of composition.In humans, the composition of the flora is influenced not only by age but also by diet and socioeconomic conditions. In a study published in 2012 in “Nature” (high indexed journal) the interaction of diet and age was demonstrated, firstly, by a close relationship between diet and microbiota composition in the subjects and, secondly, by interactions between diet, the microbiota, and health status. It also concluded that non-digestible or undigested components (Fibre) of the diet may contribute substantially to bacterial metabolism; for example, much of the increase in stool volume resulting from the ingestion of dietary fibre is based on an augmentation of bacterial mass. Most recently, qualitative changes in the microbiota have been invoked in the pathogenesis of a global epidemic: obesity. It has been postulated that a shift in the composition of the flora toward a population dominated by bacteria that are more avid extractors of absorbable nutrients, which are then available for assimilation by the host could play a major role in obesity. Also there are enough evidence to support the hypothesis that the endogenous intestinal microflora plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory bowel diseases and its variants and related disorders. Most Western populations over-consume highly refined, omnivorous diets of poor nutritional quality. Those diets are energy dense, high in animal protein, total and saturated fats, andsimple sugars but low in fruits, vegetables and other plant-based foods. Consequently, they are typically low in dietary fibre, non starch polysaccharides in general and resistant starch in particular. Cross-sectional studies have shown some evidence that Western-style diets areassociated with gut microbial populations that are typified by a Bacteroides enterotype (bad gut bacteria) whereas traditional diets rich in plant polysaccharides are associated with a Prevotella enterotype (good gut bacteria). Obesity is associated with an increased fecal Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio relative to lean subjects. Replacing a habitual Western diet with one high in fiber elicited rapid (within 24 h) and marked alterations in fecal microbiota composition, although the changes were insufficient to produce a broad switchfrom Bacteroides to Prevotella enterotype.  One mechanism by which fiber promotes and maintains bowel health is through increasingdigesta mass. Incompletely fermented fiber (e.g., insoluble non starch polysaccharides such as cellulose), increases digesta mass primarily through its physical presence and ability to adsorb water. An increase in digesta mass dilutes toxins, reduces intracolonic pressure, shortens transit time and increases defecation frequency. Fibers can also increase fecal mass to a lesser degree by stimulating fermentation, which leads to bacterial proliferation and increased biomass. Prebiotics are dietary substrates that selectively promote proliferation and/or activity of “beneficial” bacteria indigenous to the colon. The concept, first published by Gibson and Roberfroid in 1995, has been refined and redefined on several occasions. Prebiotics are defined currently as “selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes, in thecomposition and/or activity in the GI microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health”.Dr Abhishek katakwar, Bariatric & amp; Metabolic surgeon from Asian Institute of Gastroenterology quote “Your body is a Temple. You are what you eat. Do not eat processed food, junk foods, filth, or disease carrying food, animals, or rodents. Some people say of these foods, ‘well, it tastes good;. Most of the foods today that statically cause sickness, cancer, and disease all taste good;s well seasoned and prepared poison. This is why so many people are sick; mentally, emotionally, physically, and spiritually; because of being hooked to  poison, instead of being hooked on the truth and to real foods that heal and provide you with good health and wellness.
News article by Dr Abhishek Katakwar published in Deccan Chronicle (Date 21 january 2018)Our complete gastrointestinal tract is lined with microbes collectively called the microbiome, which includes bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Though it sounds weird and even unhealthy, gut bacteria perform many important functions in the body, including aiding the immune system, producing the feel-good brain chemical serotonin, making energy available to the body from the food we eat, and disposing of foreign substances and toxins, though we always have a mixture of good and bad bacteria, sometimes the bad guys get the upper hand, causing an imbalance in gut bacteria, and can cause severe health problems than just stomach pain, gas, bloating, or diarrhea. Because 60-80% of our immune system is located in our gut, gut imbalances have been linked to obesity, hormonal imbalances, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, anxiety, depression, eczema, and other chronic health problems.You will be surprised to know that human gastrointestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem of approximately 300 to 500 bacterial species, comprising nearly 2 million genes (the microbiome). Indeed, the number of bacteria within the gut is approximately 10 times that of all of the cells in the human body. At birth, the entire intestinal tract is sterile; the infant’s gut is first colonized by maternal and environmental bacteria during birth and continues to be populated through feeding and other contacts. Factors known to influence colonization include gestational age, mode of delivery (vaginal birth vs assisted delivery), diet (breast milk vs formula), level of sanitation, and exposure to antibiotics. by the age of 2.5 years, themicrobiota fully resembles the microbiota of an adult in terms of composition.In humans, the composition of the flora is influenced not only by age but also by diet and socioeconomic conditions. In a study published in 2012 in “Nature” (high indexed journal) the interaction of diet and age was demonstrated, firstly, by a close relationship between diet and microbiota composition in the subjects and, secondly, by interactions between diet, the microbiota, and health status. It also concluded that non-digestible or undigested components (Fibre) of the diet may contribute substantially to bacterial metabolism; for example, much of the increase in stool volume resulting from the ingestion of dietary fibre is based on an augmentation of bacterial mass. Most recently, qualitative changes in the microbiota have been invoked in the pathogenesis of a global epidemic: obesity. It has been postulated that a shift in the composition of the flora toward a population dominated by bacteria that are more avid extractors of absorbable nutrients, which are then available for assimilation by the host could play a major role in obesity. Also there are enough evidence to support the hypothesis that the endogenous intestinal microflora plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory bowel diseases and its variants and related disorders. Most Western populations over-consume highly refined, omnivorous diets of poor nutritional quality. Those diets are energy dense, high in animal protein, total and saturated fats, andsimple sugars but low in fruits, vegetables and other plant-based foods. Consequently, they are typically low in dietary fibre, non starch polysaccharides in general and resistant starch in particular. Cross-sectional studies have shown some evidence that Western-style diets areassociated with gut microbial populations that are typified by a Bacteroides enterotype (bad gut bacteria) whereas traditional diets rich in plant polysaccharides are associated with a Prevotella enterotype (good gut bacteria). Obesity is associated with an increased fecal Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio relative to lean subjects. Replacing a habitual Western diet with one high in fiber elicited rapid (within 24 h) and marked alterations in fecal microbiota composition, although the changes were insufficient to produce a broad switchfrom Bacteroides to Prevotella enterotype.  One mechanism by which fiber promotes and maintains bowel health is through increasingdigesta mass. Incompletely fermented fiber (e.g., insoluble non starch polysaccharides such as cellulose), increases digesta mass primarily through its physical presence and ability to adsorb water. An increase in digesta mass dilutes toxins, reduces intracolonic pressure, shortens transit time and increases defecation frequency. Fibers can also increase fecal mass to a lesser degree by stimulating fermentation, which leads to bacterial proliferation and increased biomass. Prebiotics are dietary substrates that selectively promote proliferation and/or activity of “beneficial” bacteria indigenous to the colon. The concept, first published by Gibson and Roberfroid in 1995, has been refined and redefined on several occasions. Prebiotics are defined currently as “selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes, in thecomposition and/or activity in the GI microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health”.Dr Abhishek katakwar, Bariatric & amp; Metabolic surgeon from Asian Institute of Gastroenterology quote “Your body is a Temple. You are what you eat. Do not eat processed food, junk foods, filth, or disease carrying food, animals, or rodents. Some people say of these foods, ‘well, it tastes good;. Most of the foods today that statically cause sickness, cancer, and disease all taste good;s well seasoned and prepared poison. This is why so many people are sick; mentally, emotionally, physically, and spiritually; because of being hooked to poison, instead of being hooked on the truth and to real foods that heal and provide you with good health and wellness.
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ess and food eating habits related? What happens in the body due to stress, which makes a person eat more food? While short-term stress can cause a person to lose their appetite, chronic stress can have the opposite effect. Ever notice that when you're really stressed, you tend to crave comfort foods that are high in fat or sugar? Researchers have found that specific hormones may play a role in this process. When you eat carbohydrates, it raises the body's serotonin’s level, “Serotonin” is the body's feel-good chemical. Chronic stress can cause the body to release excess “cortisol”, a hormone critical in managing fat storage and energy use in the human body. Cortisol is known to increase appetite and may encourage cravings for sugary or fatty foods.More recent studies also suggest hormone called “Neuropeptide-Y” that is released from nerve cells during stress and encourages fat accumulation. A diet high in fat and sugar appears to further promote the release of neuropeptide Y.q2. What are the kind of foods that people are found to eat and why? Is it out of necessity, taste buds or habit? Not surprisingly, people under stress don't tend to make smart food choices. Very often the carbohydrates that people go for are laden with fat, like muffins, pastries, doughnuts, and cookies, which are easily available at workplace. When individuals get stressed, they often act in impulsive ways because they do not know how to transform the stress into something productive. For people diagnosed with an eating disorder, these impulses from environmental and social stressors can cause individuals to not eat enough food, purge after a meal, or engage in a binge-eating episode. Sometimes It's a very high-pressure environment at workplace says Dr Abhishek katakwar.
Q1. How are work stress and food eating habits related? What happens in the body due to stress, which makes a person eat more food? While short-term stress can cause a person to lose their appetite, chronic stress can have the opposite effect. Ever notice that when you're really stressed, you tend to crave comfort foods that are high in fat or sugar? Researchers have found that specific hormones may play a role in this process. When you eat carbohydrates, it raises the body's serotonin’s level, “Serotonin” is the body's feel-good chemical. Chronic stress can cause the body to release excess “cortisol”, a hormone critical in managing fat storage and energy use in the human body. Cortisol is known to increase appetite and may encourage cravings for sugary or fatty foods.More recent studies also suggest hormone called “Neuropeptide-Y” that is released from nerve cells during stress and encourages fat accumulation. A diet high in fat and sugar appears to further promote the release of neuropeptide Y.q2. What are the kind of foods that people are found to eat and why? Is it out of necessity, taste buds or habit? Not surprisingly, people under stress don't tend to make smart food choices. Very often the carbohydrates that people go for are laden with fat, like muffins, pastries, doughnuts, and cookies, which are easily available at workplace. When individuals get stressed, they often act in impulsive ways because they do not know how to transform the stress into something productive. For people diagnosed with an eating disorder, these impulses from environmental and social stressors can cause individuals to not eat enough food, purge after a meal, or engage in a binge-eating episode. Sometimes It's a very high-pressure environment at workplace says Dr Abhishek katakwar. "For a lot of new software or IT recruits, it's their first time being away from home, so that can contribute to stress, and also the work performance and social pressures. All those things compound to lead to some unhealthy behaviours, whether it's full-blown eating disorders or disordered eating."q3. Is there evidence suggesting that overweight and obesity is due to work related stress. If so, what are the changes that the management needs to opt for and what does the employee need to do - do destress and bring their life on track. According to a new study from the Montreal, office-workers have become less active over the last three decades and this decreased activity may partly explain the rise in obesity. "People eat better and exercise more today than they did in the 1970's, yet obesity rates continue to rise, " "My hypothesis is that our professional life is linked to this seemingly contradictory phenomenon."Also nightshift work is associated with a 29% increased risk of becoming obese or overweight. The findings, which are published in Obesity Reviews, suggest that modifying working schedules to avoid prolonged exposure to long-term night shift work might help reduce the risk of obesity.q4. What are the behavioural changes that they must opt for? And how do deadline based, emergency based jobs make a person opt for these changes? Effective programs take a multidisciplinary approach that focuses on providing workers with the knowledge, skills, and support to eat a healthier diet and be more active. This can include nutrition classes, onsite exercise facilities and changing rooms, access to nutritionists and other counsellors, and worksite or company-wide policies that provide healthier food options and reimburse exercise-related expenses.q5. What are best methods to opt for during these conditions? What can be done in terms of behaviour change and also change in eating habit.? In the movie Die Hard, Bruce Willis once said: “If you’re not a part of the solution than you’re part of the problem”. Unless you are currently underemployed, retired, or too young to be employed, you typically will spend at least a third of your time at your workplace. That means your workplace governs a large part of what you eat and drink and how much physical activity you have. For example, you may have heard the saying that “sitting is the new smoking”. Answer to this stress is practicing relaxation techniques like yoga or tai chi, meditation, muscle relaxation to help relieve stress, enjoy nature, get out of the cocoon and connect with world. Dr Abhishek KatakwarBariatric and Metabolic surgeonLifestyle expert and motivational speakerAsian Institute of Gastroenterology, Hyderabadabhishekkatakwar@gmail.comCell: +91-8087358725
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